II. Physical factors and respond of organism

1 Terms

2,3 DPG 2,3 diphosphoglycerate is a substance lowering the affinity of oxygen to haemoglobin in the space of erythrocyte and thus allows better releasing of oxygen from it in periphery of organism
cellular part of inflammatory respond immune cells activated during inflammation (e.g. neutrophils, macrophages)
vascular part of inflammatory respond reaction of vessels during inflammation (constriction, dilatation, higher permeability)
CRF (Corticotrophin Releasing Factor) – a hormone released from hypothalamus participating on the regulation of ACTH production in adenohypophysis
crush syndrom Bywater’s syndrome, crush injury, traumatic rhabdomyolysis – manifestation of trauma and ischemia involving soft tissues, mostly skeletal muscle, due to prolonged severe crushing. It leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane and to the release of potassium, enzymes, and myoglobin from intracellular. Following hypotension and diminished renal perfusion leads to secondary ischemic renal dysfunction resulting in acute tubular necrosis and uremia.
local manifestation of inflamation local manifestation of inflamation (tumor, rubor, calor, dolor, functio leasa)
lymphocytes cells of specific immunity: T-cells responsible for cellular part of immune response, B-cells responsible for humoral part of immune response
macrophage phagocytic cell developed by activation of monocytes able to swallow a relative big amount of material including microorganisms. Macrophage is able to bring up processed material and continue in phagocytic activity. It can swallow up to tens cells. It can´t be found active in the blood. it has various immune functions – e.g. cytokine production and antigen presentation.
mastocyt labrocyt mast cell. Cell of the myeloid origin found especially in connective tissue containing histamine, heparin and other inflammatory mediators. It is involved in inflammatory reaction and healing as physiological factor but in alergic reaction and anaphylaxis too as pathological source of homeostasis disturbation.

It containing histamine, heparin and other inflammatory mediators and can be source of patologic disturbation of homeostasis like in alergic reaction and anaphylaxis.???

inflammatory mediators substances allowing communication between immune cells and other parts of inflammation (e.g. interleukins)
microphage Neutrophil granulocyte able to phagocyte 5 – 7 cells. After capacity exhaustion dies and forms a pus.
Monocyte Cell of myeloid line circulating in blood stream and after its maturation evolves to macrophage.
pAO2 Partial pressure of oxygen present in pulmonar alveoli.
paO2 Partial pressure of oxygen present in arterial blood.
plasma cell Activated B-cell able to produce antibodies.
Plasma part of inflammatory response Cascades of reactions between proteins which are present in plasma in inactive form. (e.g. coagulation, fbrinolitic, complement, calicrein – kinin)
stress reaction Nonspecific reaction of organism to various stimulus which activates functional reserves and prepares organism to “fight or flight”.
Inflammation Nonspecific reaction of organism to damage, infection or just irritation of mostly local character. It is connected to healing process.